Design Systems Handbook
02

Designing your design system

Step by step


by Jina Anne

Starting a design system can feel daunting. There are so many things to consider: the design style, how to design for modularity and scalability, how it will be used by other teams, how to sell the idea to the decision makers in the company. Where is a designer to start?

Big problems are always more manageable when broken into smaller pieces. Before diving into the design process, start by considering who needs to be involved in the creation of your design system and how the team will work together. Once you’ve got the right people assembled, you’re ready to start thinking about the design language of the system, which will include color, typography, spacing, and more. Your visual design language will be the foundation of your UI library—a series of components that can be quickly assembled to create an interface.

Let’s take a step-by-step look at how you can start designing your design system.

Who should be involved

Rachel Cohen, Jessica Clark, and David Carmona from LinkedIn's Art Deco Design System team discuss how the system was formed, rolled out, and governed.

Before beginning work on your design system, take a moment to think about the team you’ll need to bring it to life. Who needs to be involved? Spoiler alert! You’re going to need more than just designers.

Here’s a quick list of the disciplines that can be represented in your team to create an effective design system:

  • Designers to define the visual elements of the system
  • Front-end developers to create modular, efficient code
  • Accessibility experts to ensure your system conforms to standards like WCAG
  • Content strategists who can help the team nail the voice and tone of the system
  • Researchers who can help you understand customer needs
  • Performance experts who can ensure your system loads quickly on all devices
  • Product managers to ensure the system is aligned with customer needs
  • Leaders (VPs and directors) to champion and align the vision throughout the company, including up to executive leadership

Once you’ve got the right skillsets represented in the design systems team, identify leaders to represent each area. These people should be able to drive decisions forward. Know who on the team can advocate for each of the areas of the design system.

With a team of experts guided by strong leadership, your next task is to establish the right team model to help you achieve your goals.

Choosing the right team model

The team model that brings people together is as important as the team creating the design system. In “Team Models for Scaling a Design System,” design systems veteran Nathan Curtis outlines 3 popular team models used by many companies.

The solitary model: an “overlord” rules the design system.

The centralized team model: a single team maintains the design system as their full-time job.

The federated model: team members from across the company come together to work on the system.

There are strengths and weaknesses in each of the above models. A solitary model is fast and scrappy, but with 1 person in charge of so much, the “overlord” can become a bottleneck to the completion of many tasks. A centralized team, on the other hand, keeps the system well maintained, but the group may not be as connected to the customers’ needs as they may be less involved in user research. Finally, a federated team has great insight into what’s needed for all the product features and user needs, but this group can be quite busy working on those areas outside of building the system.

Many teams are moving away from the solitary model to the centralized or federated model. As Curtis mentions in his article, overlords don’t scale. The centralized or federated models are usually much better for scaling a design system.

I wrote about the Salesforce team model in response to Curtis’s piece. When I was at Salesforce on the Lightning Design System team, we used a combination of the centralized and federated models. In an enterprise organization as big as Salesforce, a centralized design systems team was not enough on its own. With so many key players involved and the amount of ground we had to cover across products and platforms, we needed a more sustainable approach.

Though the Lightning Design System has a core team, there are also core contributors from many of the product and feature areas in the Salesforce ecosystem who act as a federation of practitioners, surfacing new ideas and making requests for the design system to evolve. Researchers, accessibility specialists, lead product designers, prototypers, and UX engineers work with the central design system team to both consume and help establish the patterns, components, and the overall design system. Engineers refine all code to make sure the system is performant and production ready.

Though the solitary model is less popular in most teams because the primary contributor can become a bottleneck, there are situations where it can work quite well. In the midst of a political campaign moving at breakneck speeds, Mina Markham had little time to bring in reinforcements as she developed new online assets for Hillary Clinton. She created a design system called Pantsuit to help many teams in many locations expedite design and production while maintaining consistency in the campaign brand. The solitary model let Markham focus on speed first and longevity second, which is a different tract than a typical enterprise might take.

As you determine what team model works for you, consider your goals. If you want to move fast, the solitary method is ideal initially, though some work may need to be done later to fully adopt it across other teams. If you want to move fast, but want to encourage buy-in from the start, consider the centralized team model. And to get the most buy-in and shared ownership, the federated model is a good option. In any case, remember that a design system is a product, so staff it like a product instead of a project; you want people committed to maintaining and evolving it.

With the team and the model that organizes them established, it’s time to start your design system just as you would any new product—by talking to your customers.

Interviewing customers

As with any product design process, it’s important to do your research. Who will be using your design system and how will they use it? Your design system will get used much more often if you create it to fit into the workflow of other teams. By interviewing users, you can pinpoint problems ahead of time, define principles that will help others use the system properly, and focus your energies on the most important things.

A less common group of people to interview are members of your open source community. This exists more likely in organizations that provide developer tools for customer and partner communities. If you plan to open source your design system—a potentially bigger project—then you’ll need to speak with potential contributors and consumers to discover what use cases your design system will need to satisfy.

And then there are the executives, leaders, and management. It is important to get their thoughts as well. You will need their buy-in to support and fund the system. Listen to their concerns and use them as actionable goals and metrics to achieve. Examples of requests might be shipping features faster, better performance, and improved UI quality.

With insights in hand from customer interviews, it’s time to take an inventory. There are 2 types of interface inventories to be created:

  • An inventory of the visual attributes (such as spacing, color, and typography), which will help create a codified visual language
  • An inventory of each UI element (such as buttons, cards, and modals), which will help create a UI library of components

Let’s first focus on a global visual inventory.

Creating a visual inventory

Of course, if you’re starting a design system for a product that doesn’t yet exist, you can skip this step and jump straight to creating a visual language for your new product. Lucky you!

Conducting a visual audit

As we start to take inventory, it’s good practice to take a look at the CSS used to create all of those elements you just captured in your visual inventory. Use a tool like CSS Stats to see how many rules, selectors, declarations, and properties you have in your style sheets. More relevant, it will show you how many unique colors, font sizes, and font families you have. It also shows a bar chart for the number of spacing and sizing values. This is a great way to see where you can merge or remove values.

If you’re creating an inventory in Sketch, use the Sketch-Style-Inventory plugin to aggregate all colors, text styles, and symbols. It also gives you the ability to merge similar styles.

Creating a visual design language

I must admit, as an art school graduate the visual design language in a design system is my favorite part to work on. I love thinking about color theory, typography, and layout, which are at the core of any design system.

If we break apart each component of a design system we find that these fundamental elements make up its visual design language:

  • Colors
  • Typography (size, leading, typefaces, and so on)
  • Spacing (margins, paddings, positioning coordinates, border spacing)
  • Images (icons, illustrations)

Depending on your needs, you may also include the following to further standardize the user experience:

  • Visual form (depth, elevation, shadows, rounded corners, texture)
  • Motion
  • Sound

Consider the role each of these design elements plays in a simple component like a button. A button typically has a background color, typography for the label, and spacing inside it. There may be an icon next to the label to create a visual cue. A border on the edge serves as simple ornamentation and may even round the corners. Finally, hovering over or clicking the button could trigger animation or sound as feedback to the user. Though a button may seem simple, there are many design decisions required to bring it to life.

Design tokens

Before we dive into visual design standards, I want to discuss design tokens. Design tokens are the “subatomic” foundation of a design system implementation. At its simplest, they’re name and value pairs stored as data to abstract the design properties you want to manage. With the values for all design tokens stored in a single place, it’s easier to achieve consistency while reducing the burden of managing your design system.

Example:

SPACING_MEDIUM: 1rem

In design tokens you can store colors, spacing, sizing, animation durations, etc., and distribute them to various platforms.

We’ll look more closely at design tokens in Chapter 3.

Color

The colors you choose for your design system are more than just an extension of your brand. A UI uses color to convey:

  • Feedback: Error and success states
  • Information: Charts, graphs, and wayfinding elements
  • Hierarchy: Showing structured order through color and typography

Common colors in a design system include 1–3 primaries that represent your brand. If none of these work well as a link and button color, then you may have an extra color for that as well. It’s a good idea to use the same color for links and button backgrounds as it makes it easier for users to recognize interactive elements.

You’ll likely have neutrals for general UI backgrounds and borders—usually grays. And finally, you’ll have colors for states such as error, warning, and success. Group these colors to see how well they work together and refine as needed.

Larger design systems sometimes include colors for objects and products. For example, at Salesforce we had a color for contacts, for sales deals, or groups, and so on. We also had them for products: Sales Cloud, Marketing Cloud, Analytics Cloud, etc. Color can be a helpful wayfinding tool for your users.

Using color for wayfinding can be tricky to do while maintaining accessibility, as people who are color blind may not be able to discern some differences.

Depending on how strict you want to be with your palette, you may want to include a range of tints—a color mixed with white—and shades—a color mixed with black. Sometimes you may use other colors instead of white or black to avoid muddiness, such as an orange to darken a yellow so it doesn’t appear brown.

These color variations allow designers to have choices. But be warned, having too many choices can lead to major design inconsistencies. Keep your inclusion of tints, shades, and neutral palettes slim to prevent misuse of the system while still giving designers the flexibility they need. You can always add more colors as you find the need.

Typography

Fonts and weights

The fonts you choose have a high impact on both your brand and your user experience. Keep legibility in mind as you select the right fonts for your system. Keeping to common system fonts like Helvetica, Times New Roman, or Verdana can be a great shortcut, as they are familiar to the user’s eye. Some companies prefer custom web fonts to better reflect their brand, but pay special attention to how you use them as performance can be affected.

Most design systems I’ve worked on include just 2 typefaces: 1 font for both headings and body copy, and a monospace font for code. Sometimes there’s an additional font for headings that compliments the body font. Most design systems do not have a need for more, unless you have a system that supports multiple brands. It’s best to keep the number low as it’s not only a best practice of typographic design, it also prevents performance issues caused by excessive use of web fonts.

These days it’s trendy to use a font at a very thin weight, but be aware that legibility can become an issue. If you want to use light or thin weights, only use them at larger text sizes.

Type scale

When selecting the size to set your type, consider the legibility of the font you’ve chosen. In most cases, a 16px font size works well. It’s the default font size in most browsers, and it’s quite easy to read for most people. I like using 16px as it works with the 4-based metrics used by Apple and Google (and is gaining traction as the standard approach). I recommend this as your baseline, though I would use it in a relative format like 1rem for CSS-based systems.

You can use a modular scale for larger or smaller font sizes for other elements such as headings. A modular scale is a set of numbers in which you have 1 base number, and a ratio to generate the next number. You keep applying the ratio to the new number to get yet another number.

As you design your type treatments, be sure to give thought to how it will respond to various screen sizes to maintain legibility. You won’t want your headings to be too large for mobile devices. And for much larger displays, you have the room to bump up sizes.

A common method is to enlarge headings on larger viewports. You can also use viewport units to scale your type based on a percentage of your screen size.

Leading

Leading, or line-height in CSS, can improve readability and aesthetics of your typography. While the best line-height can vary depending on the font face and the line length, a general rule of thumb is to have leading at around 1.4–1.5x the font-size. 1.5 is recommended by the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative.

It also makes your math more predictable, but you don’t have to calculate it. You can define your line-height without a unit of measurement and the browser will do all the hard math for you.

For headings, tighten it up depending on your typeface. In most cases, I find a 1.25 or 1.125 ratio works quite well.

Spacing and sizing

The system you use for spacing and sizing looks best when you have rhythm and balance. This means using numbers based on patterns and proportions. Using a consistent spacing scale also promotes maintainability through ratios by making layouts more predictable and more likely to “fit” and align well.

When I designed an Android app, I studied Google’s design guidelines. I noticed a pattern of using 8dp between elements and 16dp for outer gutters. It broke me out of using a 10-based scale I was accustomed to, as I found that 4-based worked so much better.

A 4-based scale is growing in popularity as the recommended scale for many reasons. Both iOS and Android use and recommend metrics that are divisible by or multiples of 4. Standard ICO size formats (which are used by most operating systems) for icons tended be 4-based (16, 24, 32, etc.) so that they scaled more easily. The browser’s default font size is usually 16. When everything is using this system, things are more likely to fit in place and line up. And finally, responsive math works out well.

For horizontal spacing, an 8-based scale works quite well. You can make margins and padding equal or in proportion to the font size. But for vertical spacing, I tend to use a 12-based system. This is due to the line-height I get of 1.5 (with the default font size of 16px) getting us to 24.

Occasionally, you may have to break this rule. If you’ve added a 1px border to something, this border can throw off alignment by a hair. So you might find yourself using a padding or margin that subtracts that amount. This is something that you do on a case-by-case basis.

You probably want elements to grow and shrink with the content. For general sizing, avoid setting widths and heights unless totally necessary. You can achieve responsive design much easier if you let elements flow to fill the space they’re given in the layout.

Images

File formats

For icons and illustrations, I find using a vector format (SVG) works best for scalability and responsive design. However, if you find yourself needing to use photography, you may need to use a rasterized image format like JPG or PNG.

For most photos, illustrations, and diagrams, you can allow the image to go 100% to the container or viewport and let the height automatically set itself by not defining it. This works best for responsive layouts. You may also want to define some preset widths for images if you don’t want it to go full width (for example, half-width, a third, or a fourth). I recommend setting these as max-widths so that the image can rescale for smaller screens.

Iconography

Before drawing your icons, come up with your guidelines around them first. Will they be filled or outline? What is the line weight? Will they use more than 1 color? What sizes will they be? Is there an icon art boundary set inside an outer boundary?

You may have different styles for different icon types. For example, utility and action icons (like a notifications bell or a settings cog icon) may be solid and 1 color, while navigation icons may be multicolored and more creative. Clear guidelines will keep your icons unified.

Illustrations

Illustrations are a great way to add some character to your product. You can use these for empty states, loading screens, modals, and other components that invite visual interest. Shopify went to great lengths to produce unique illustrations for all of the empty states of their platform, which conveyed a strong sense of brand personality (figure 19).

Similar to icons, it’s helpful to have guidelines for the style of your illustrations (figure 20).

Visual form

Visual form, or the material quality of your UI, is about the background images, gradients, and textures, shadows and elevation (z-indexes), rounded corners, and borders. These are visual qualities that help emphasize and decorate elements to add visual hierarchy and aesthetics. In any case, all are examples of ornamentation that need to be standardized.

Google does a great job indicating how depth and elevation work with layering of components (figure 21).

Motion and sound

When you define your visual language, motion and sound might not immediately come to mind. You experience these in a different way. But motion and sound can have a high impact on the experience of your app. You’ll want to have that systemized as well for consistency. I personally haven’t explored these areas as much as I’d like to admit, but there are some great examples in the wild.

Creating a user interface library

Before we conducted a visual inventory, which looked at the visual qualities of elements, such as color, spacing, and typography. Now, we will conduct a UI inventory, in which we look at the actual pieces of UI—like buttons, cards, lists, forms, and more. Where visual language is all about the visual approach and how things look on a global visual level, a user interface library (otherwise known as a pattern library) looks at actual components of a UI.

Let’s take a look at each of these design elements and the role they’ll play in your design system. Take stock of all interface elements in production to see just how much design debt you need to address and what elements are most commonly used. Warning! This can get a bit depressing, as most companies have an intense amount of inconsistency in their UIs.

To create an interface inventory simply open all products in production at your organization, screenshot all buttons, forms, various type styles, images, and collect them in a slide deck or on big posters where the whole team can see.

You can do this with cut out print-outs or through screenshots. Gather the folks you’re involving (as mentioned earlier in this chapter). Have them conduct this inventory with you, either through a shared presentation or via a hands-on activity. The idea is to gather the different components you’re using and categorize and merge them.

Some like dividing the pieces into elements, components, regions, utilities, and so on. Atomic Design is a great example of this line of thinking, which is a great conceptual model. But when it comes down to it, everything is pretty much a component, so at the end of the day, you could label all as such. But in general, what I see most design systems break things down into are:

  • elements (or basics, or atoms)—these are small, stand-alone components like buttons and icons
  • components (or molecules, or modules)—these are usually an assembly of small components into a larger component like a search form (which includes a form input, a button, and potentially even a search icon)
  • regions (or zones, or organisms)—these are an area of the UI like a left-hand navigation
  • layouts—how the pieces are laid out on the page (like a header region, followed by a sidebar and main content area, followed by a footer)

After you complete the inventory, you can merge and remove what you don’t need (either in a spreadsheet or even directly in a code refactor if you want more immediate change). Also, document what the component is and when to use it. This will become your UI library (or pattern library, or component library, depending on what your organization chooses to call it.).

Most design system documentation includes the component’s name, description, example, and code. Others may show meta data, release histories, examples, and more. What matters most is that you show what’s necessary for your team to get your work done.

Conclusion

Creating a design system not only helps your team produce more consistent user experiences, it also builds bridges between design and development. By creating a common visual language codified through design tokens, and a set of components and patterns cataloged in a UI library, you’ll vastly improve designer/developer communication. You’ll also have fine-tuned control of the UI in a way that is manageable, scalable, and robust.

Design Systems Handbook
05

Expanding your design system

More than the sum of its parts


by Marco Suarez and Sophie Tahran

As mentioned in Chapter 1, early software programming was limited by the speed and capability of hardware. But over time, hardware became increasingly faster and cheaper, and the inefficiency of software became even more noticeable.

As product teams are expected to move faster and faster, speed and efficiency is an ever-growing concern. However, design systems enable teams to find speed, efficiency, and consistency through reusability. As you experience these benefits, other areas of inefficiency that were once unnoticeable become glaring.

Alignment is often one of those areas. Aligning team members, teams, and a company around things like direction, expectations, and quality is critical to moving and scaling quickly. Without alignment, friction increases and velocity slows—something product teams cannot afford.

A design system is a fantastic way to create alignment around interface design and implementation. But beyond components, teams can build alignment with vision, design principles, process, and voice and tone.

Vision

A vision statement moves everyone toward a common destination. Vision is your North Star. It’s a reusable statement that gives context to your work to help your team stay on track and in sync. A vision statement declares what your team, product, or company is attempting to achieve and why it’s worth achieving. It’s comprehensive yet memorable, elevating yet attainable.

Vision creates clarity, making non-essentials easier to identify. Momentum is far easier to build once everyone knows where they’re going and why.

A few years ago, the Starbucks product team was reorganizing and needed to clarify—for themselves and the entire company—their reason for existing. In a corporation as large as Starbucks, it’s vital to clearly and succinctly express the purpose and value of your team.

“We create digital products that make our customers happy and our partners proud.” This statement became their rallying cry. The vision grounded decision-making to improve the experience for customers and partners (baristas, managers, office employees) as well as achieve business goals.

Informal vision statements for discrete projects also became useful. “Clarity first, then elegance if possible,” was the guiding principle of a recent redesign.

Nick Grossman of Union Square Ventures gives several examples of how a North Star impacts company alignment in his talk, “Purpose, Mission & Strategy.” One example he gives is about Foursquare’s product focus moving from the consumer app to the direction of being a location data platform that could power other applications. This was a massive shift in direction. It was the vision “making cities more delightful” that provided a much-needed North Star for employees to accept and embrace this new model. Grossman says, “It was a watershed moment for aligning the company around a new direction.”

It’s helpful to assess your progress as a team. At Etsy, we held retrospectives after every major launch. A retro is a meeting to celebrate the things that went well and identify the things that didn’t for a particular launch. It’s also an opportune time to check your alignment with your vision.

Design principles

Designers often operate with their own implicit set of standards to evaluate the quality of their work. But when teams grow, explicit standards become necessary to unify all with a shared language and a guide to evaluating the work. How do you define good design? How do you know what’s essential and what’s arbitrary? How do you know when something is ready to ship? How do you know if you’re on the path to achieving your vision?

A system of principles can provide the answers. Design principles act as a reusable standard for designers to measure their work. They replace subjective ideals with a shared understanding of what design must do for users. Just as guardrails keep you safe and on the road, design principles keep teams on the path to achieving their vision.

Posting your principles on the office walls, creating a computer desktop wallpaper, adding them to your design systems site, or printing them on notebooks are all great ways to keep them top of mind. Task your most senior designers with using them in every design critique to ensure the new language is adopted. This new system of language will become a vital part of your design system because it creates alignment, enabling your design team to scale.

While designing InVision Studio, the design team realized far too much time was spent debating solutions. So a set of principles was drafted to help navigate the complexity of designing software. These principles were used to guide individual decision-making, help reach agreements faster as a team, and acted as a transcendent standard to create harmony and cohesion throughout the product. The principles were modified over time as Studio evolved and needs changed, but these principles aligned the team and helped them keep the velocity they needed.

Process

Providing a clearly defined process for how user experience problems are approached and solved builds alignment within product teams. This consistency helps to remove friction and build velocity.

Process guide designers through a series of clearly defined milestones, each with different objectives and deliverables. These milestones act as interdependent components that, when used together, improve the probability of arriving at optimal solutions.

A repeatable process offers several key benefits:

  1. It provides clear expectations within each step, allowing you to focus solely on the tasks at hand without worrying about what to do next
  2. It builds data within each step that can be referenced and used to inform future iterations or course-correct low performing launches
  3. It creates an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each team member involved—bringing the right people in at the right times, making everyone’s involvement beneficial to the quality of the output

A repeatable process will ensure progress is smooth, efficient, and predictable while also improving the quality and consistency of your work.

At InVision, our process has 6 steps:

  1. Understand: First, we use customer research and insights to gain a deep understanding of the problem space and identify how it aligns with our business goals. Product management leads this phase and works with the research team to conduct interviews, gather data, and perform competitive research.
  2. Explore: The design team then ideates and explores possible solutions. They work with product and research teams to produce wireframes, core flows, and user journeys.
  3. Define: Once a potential solution has been identified, the product team works to align everyone on what success looks like. The output of this work is a problem statement and defining measurements of success.
  4. Design: Refining the solution is design team’s responsibility. They work with the research, product, and engineering teams to develop core flows, prototypes, and identify tech requirements.
  5. Build: Engineering translates the design and prototypes into reality. The product team orchestrates quality assurance, support documentation, and the sales and marketing teams.
  6. Learn: At this point, we observe the effectiveness of our launched solution. The product team collaborates with the research, design, and engineering teams to gather insights to measure against our success metrics. We use these insights to inform our next steps and start the process over again.

Voice and tone

Sophie Tahran, InVision’s UX Writer, weighs in on the value of writing guidelines—and how to create them.

Great writing is an essential part of great design, but even in-house UX writers aren’t able to edit every single word in a product. That’s where writing guidelines come into play. A source of truth promotes good communication, credibility, and consistency—no matter who’s writing content.

Every writing guide should cover both voice and tone. While your voice generally stays the same (like a personality), your tone shifts according to the situation (like an attitude). Both are an essential part of communication—and you can’t ship a product without effectively communicating it.

Because voice identifies who we are and defines our relationships, building writing guidelines early on is one of the best ways to gain credibility with your users. They’ll begin to recognize you, and know that they can trust you.

Writing guidelines also help evolve your voice. Just as your personality matures over time, your voice will evolve as your company grows. Guidelines define what you should sound like right now, so when you do steer away from them, you’ll know that you’re doing so intentionally. (“I’ll just throw an emoji in this subject line,” turns into, “Hey, let’s test how emoji perform and see if they’re worth adding to our writing guidelines.”)

Without thoughtful writing guidelines, teams risk allowing their voice to be determined by patterns instead of users’ needs, and end up making decisions solely based on what they’ve done in the past.

Building writing guidelines

Start with an audit. Talk to people across (and outside) the company: designers, writers, support agents, co-founders, users, etc. Your goal is to get their impression of the company’s personality. Consider not only conducting interviews, but also creating mood boards—visual collections of colors, people, places, and more—to represent more emotional, intangible qualities.

Define the findings. Have a core group of people, normally writers, narrow down the best words to describe what you found. Is your voice human, real, and bold? Or is it kind, experienced, and empowering? Take into consideration not only how you sound now, but also what you aspire to be and avoid (“InVision is never clickbait-y or pandering”).

Tone can be more difficult to hammer down. It shifts according to the situation, so it’s sometimes more helpful to provide direction than it is to identify characteristics. State your key priorities, like, “Always provide clarity,” and, “Consider the user’s emotional and mental state.” This is also a good place to determine whether humor has a place in your writing, and where you fall on the formality spectrum.

Once you’ve identified the more nebulous aspects of your voice and tone, carry that same thinking into the tangible. What should your different channels look like? Do you use sentence case or title case?

You may find that you have a need for multiple guidelines—voice and tone within your design system, a company-wide style guide focusing on words only, and brand guidelines that also encompass visual design.

Get buy-in. Potentially more important than building voice and tone guidelines is encouraging everyone to follow them. Anyone who works with content should have a chance to sign off.

Find a home. Your guidelines need to be easily found and integrated. If you’re building voice and tone into your design system, follow Mailchimp and Shopify’s lead in giving writing its own section, separate from components, principles, and layers. You can also go one step further by creating a separate list of copy patterns (like Mailchimp did) for grab-and-go words.

Develop. Writing guidelines are living, breathing documents that require maintenance as your company grows. From the start, use an editable Paper or Google Doc—and better yet, schedule monthly check-ins.

Invest time in writing guidelines from the start. Most companies have more people representing their voice than you’d expect, from product designers to support agents. By having a source of truth—and creating it together—you can offer users a better experience.

Conclusion

Just as design is far more than the sum of its parts, your design system can serve as far more than a components-only guide. Vision, principles, process, and voice and tone expand your design system into additional areas where reusability can also increase speed and efficiency.

Design systems have changed the way we design and build applications—so much so that we must look at the future of design through the lens of systems. In a future where design systems gain wide adoption, design could take on many new, exciting forms.

About the Authors

Marco Suarez
Product Designer, InVision

Marco Suarez has built design systems at InVision and Etsy. Now he guides companies through the process of designing and adopting their own design systems. He’s also one of the owners of Methodical Coffee, a cafe and roasting company in Greenville, SC.

  • Currently listening to: Shadow Work by Mammal Hands
  • Currently inspired by: Dieter Rams
  • Cultural thing I’m lovin’: Third Plate by Dan Barber
Katie Sylor-Miller
Staff Software Engineer, Etsy

Katie advocates for and implements front-end best practices in collaboration with product engineers and designers. She’s the creator of ohshitgit.com.

Roy Stanfield
Design Principal, Airbnb

Roy enables platformization efforts by unifying UI/UX across products shared by Airbnb businesses. He’s also worked on the Design Language System (DLS).

  • Currently listening to: This is War playlist on Spotify
  • Currently inspired by: Gordon Matta-Clark and Joseph Beuys
  • Cultural thing I’m lovin’: Twin Peaks: The Return
Diana Mounter
Design Infrastructure Manager, GitHub

Diana leads and specializes in design operations & systems with a background in user-centered design. She also organizes Design Systems Coalition NYC.

Jina Anne
Design systems advocate, Sushi & Robots

Jina worked on the Salesforce Lightning Design System and led Apple’s CSS architecture remodel for the Online Store. She hosts the Clarity conference.

  • Currently listening to: My Clarity Playlist makes me happy. 🙂
  • Currently inspired by: Jessica Hische is a big inspiration for me.
  • Cultural thing I’m lovin’: The film Won’t You Be My Neighbor?