InVision Presents

Enterprise Design Sprints


by Richard Banfield

A Design Sprint provides a simple, timeboxed problem-solving framework for product teams to get answers quickly and effectively. The exercises embedded in the five phases are designed to reduce politics, increase collaboration across functions and put the focus on answers (outcomes) and not just assets (outputs). 


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What Design Sprints Do for Enterprises
GET READY TO SPRINT

A design sprint is a flexible, timeboxed problem-solving framework that increases the chances of making something people want. The goal of a design sprint is to validate or invalidate ideas so teams can have more confidence in their choices and priorities. There are five phases to every design sprint: Understand; Diverge; Converge; Build and Test.

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When To Sprint
IS IT TIME?

Design sprints are for when you need answers to big questions. Design sprints first gained traction in the digital products space, but they are a flexible framework and can be tailored to fit almost any problem-solving effort.

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Getting Senior Buy-in And Support
ON YOUR MARK...

Having the right people or opinions at a design sprint will determine its impact and success. It’s important to provide compelling reasons for senior executives and influencers to participate and to understand how design sprints add to existing processes, like Lean and Agile.

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Planning Your Design Sprint
A TEAM SPORT

Adequate preparation will make the design sprint more impactful. Understanding who to invite, who to get input from, where to host it and what to bring will set you up for success. Plus, helpful tips on how to run a successful design sprint when your team is partially or completely remote.

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The Design Sprint
LET’S GO

Practical and real-world tested exercises will give you the best chance of delivering on the promise of a design sprint. This chapter provides a step-by-step guide for teams of all sizes.

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Beyond the Five-Phases
HOW’D YOU PLACE?

The design sprint isn’t really over at the end of the fifth phase. Collecting insights, compiling notes and capturing experimental data is critical to knowing what to do next. Thoughtful preparation and communication will ensure your hard work finds the traction it needs to either move you forward or help you make tough decisions.

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Appendix
THE COOL DOWN

Downloads, recommendations and workshops. We’ve collected the most helpful resources for you and your team to succeed with your enterprise design sprint.

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03

Getting Senior Buy-in And Support

ON YOUR MARK...


by Richard Banfield

James Bull, a senior leader of R&D programs at Shopify, set up a design sprint workshop to spotlight different exercises, and he invited his senior leadership to participate. Following the workshop he sent this by email: “The team is so hyped on the design sprint. The fact that our chief design officer and co-founder were there was even better. They’re thinking, ‘Hey, if the senior folks are there then it must be worthwhile’. Huge win for us this week.”

Including senior leaders in a handful of exercises could be all that’s required to get their buy-in and enthusiasm, which is hugely important. If your leadership can’t see the value in what you’re doing, the project likely won’t get far. It’s been my experience that organizers who spend time rallying their leaders’ support for a design sprint are more successful than those who leave the preparation and communication to chance.

Leaders are often tasked to make decisions regarding resource allocation, planning choices, and talent acquisition. To get a leader’s support for the resources and access your design sprint requires, you need to put yourself in their shoes and imagine what they require to feel excited about the sprint. The more relevant information you can provide them, the more likely you’ll get their blessing.

When communicating with leaders, or anyone who has an interest in your design sprint, consider their motivations and priorities. Being empathetic and thoughtful about their needs gives you the perspective to help make your work relevant to their goals. In some cases you might be able to connect the outcomes of the design sprint to a person’s Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) or Objectives and Key Results (OKRs).

Frequently these outcomes need to be balanced by the risk of doing the additional work required by a design sprint. Anytime a team is engaged on a design sprint they will not be working on other work. In cases like these, asking for a little space to experiment with design sprints goes a long way. Justin Sachtleben, Design Director of USAA, explains how this worked for his team. “We approached the senior leadership and said, ‘look we’ll do whatever you want after a couple of weeks, but just like let us do a design sprint and show you the results first.’”

USAA is a massive financial services organization with 30,000 employees and 30,000 external partners. Those two weeks of experimentation gave the design team the wins they needed to create trust with the leaders. “It was wildly successful and we all had some great ideas, now our leaders want us to go work on those things for the next year or so,” says Sachtleben.

Related to this is that most leaders hate surprises. Their jobs require them to be informed, so the more you can prepare them with knowledge and understanding, the better their chances of looking good. If they look good, then that smooths the path for your design sprint. The best receptions for design sprints are fostered when both top-down and bottom-up approaches are run simultaneously. Having a senior leader champion design-thinking techniques will grease the wheels, while actively involving your colleagues in workshops and design sprints will convert them to believers.

While the “ask forgiveness, not permission” strategy might appear to be the way to go for some of you, the benefits to getting senior buy-in are far greater. “The biggest piece of all this is the transformational way we work, and the cultural shift in how we work,” says Home Depot’s Creef, about getting buy-in from the top. “Even our CMO has been exposed to what design sprints can do, and the benefits of it. Basically, he’s like, ‘We should be working like this all the time.’”

Kai Haley, Marta Rey Babarro, and Jenny Gove from Google speak about the history of design sprints at Google and how the process spread into teams like Corporate Engineering.

More Tips for Greasing the Wheels

“Most of our ideas are wrongheaded,” says Lean Enterprise author and facilitator, Barry O’Reilly. “In fact, 60–90 percent of ideas do not improve the metric they were intended to improve. You can invest in convincing people why your idea is the best, or you can invest that time in testing it to find out.”

Chances are your organization has lots of ideas or potential solutions for the problems it faces. Ideas tend to be a dime a dozen. The challenge is creating a reliable way to test ideas to determine if they’re worth following through on. That’s what design sprints do well.

Here are several suggestions for helping your team and leadership buy into the design-sprint process and not get bogged down in assumptions and opinions.

  1. Start to prepare long before the sessions are scheduled. Share info and insights about design thinking with influencers for several weeks. That way they aren’t surprised by your request for a workshop when the time comes.
  2. Make any design thinking workshop about them—your leaders. Do your research and find out what they’re working on and what’s a priority for them. Then you can include those insights into the outcomes/goals when you request their time for a workshop or session.
  3. Educate each participant about the session before they arrive. Nobody likes to look stupid, so invest time making them feel comfortable. You can do this with one-on-one’s or by sharing materials on what to expect.
  4. Focus the team on outcomes that are aligned with their goals. Give them something meaningful to work towards and don’t get too distracted by the “how.”
  5. Start each session with some ‘openers’ instead of icebreakers. Get them to open up and share some recent embarrassing or vulnerable moments with each other. Research shows this type of sharing helps people trust others more and increases brainstorming creativity by up to 26 percent. This also sets the tone for the rest of the session by making everyone more receptive to difficult conversations.
  6. If senior leaders are reluctant to support something that sounds like it’s only relevant to designers, then consider changing the name of the design sprint to something that aligns with your organization’s culture and goals. (More on this in the next chapter.)

Greasing the wheels is not a one-and-done effort. Sharing the value of a design sprint is an ongoing effort and can be done informally and formally.

Paul Stonick says there’s an opportunity to further establish design thinking at Home Depot by sharing the value of design sprint work. “We’ve done a considerable amount of socialization outside with the articles we’re writing, and how we’re going to be partnering with conferences,” he says. “We’re also going to be working closely with our internal groups, like our HR team, in terms of internal learning, continuing education. So we’ve launched a new program called Degreed, which is a learning platform, which allows people to pick specific tracks that they might be interested in.”

Working With and Around Research Departments

Enterprise research departments are often stretched thin, a situation that can compromise a future design sprint through a lack of relevant data.

Renda Morton, VP of design for The New York Times, explains how the organization deals with the situation. “The qualitative team on its insights is struggling to keep up with the demand across the whole product and design team, so we really have to prioritize what type of work they can take on,” she says.

To get around this obstacle, Morton suggests a DIY approach to qualitative research. Her team simply goes downstairs to 42nd street and talks to people on the street. Or they ask random people in the building’s cafeteria. However, Morton understands this type of research is limited. “You can’t really get to the larger why questions or uncover emotional needs, but it’s a good start.”

Merging Design Sprints With Agile, Lean and Design Thinking

For enterprises, knowing how a design sprint fits with waterfall, Agile or Lean process is important. Although Agile, Lean and design sprints are complementary, interrupting the daily schedule to host a five-day session can be challenging. So let’s discuss the ways these processes can blend together to deliver value to the teams that use them.

Agile

The primary advantage of using an Agile framework is the confidence it gives a team in knowing what to build next. Agile provides a way to deal with ambiguity by reducing the need to scope and define an entire product upfront and instead deal with the highest priorities first. Working in short bursts, or Agile sprints gives the team an opportunity to course-correct before it’s too late.

Design sprints work well to add another layer of confidence to the prioritization by answering tough questions quickly and turning assumptions into facts. Both types of sprints are valuable, timebox elements that provide guardrails and discipline to the work of product, design and dev teams. The design sprint suggests what to build, while the Agile sprint suggests how you’ll build it.

The traditional Agile sprint was the inspiration for the design sprint, and thus the timebox of a design sprint nests into Agile methodology with relative ease. Done at the beginning of a project, a design sprint can provide the answers that a delivery-centric Agile process needs to be effective.

There is no clear answer to the question, “Should I run my design sprint in parallel or interrupt my Agile sprints?” Design sprints that are run in parallel to an existing Agile sprint schedule tend to be effective when the answer you’re seeking is discrete enough that it doesn’t need the entire team’s attention. However, if you’re trying to solve a big problem that’s holding up further progress on your project, then interrupt the schedule and get the answers that are blocking your team’s progress. This interruption will pay dividends throughout the rest of the delivery cycle.

More reading on this topic.

Lean UX For Enterprise

Fundamentally, the Lean UX framework is similar to the design sprint. Both follow the scientific method of establishing a hypothesis and then testing that hypothesis in an effort to reduce risk and maximize understanding. This is good news for Lean organizations because your design sprint participants will feel at home with the process.

What will be even more familiar to Lean practitioners is the emphasis on testing ideas and “getting out of the building” to talk to customers. In no way is a design sprint a replacement for the Lean methodology, a process which incorporates several aspects of discovery, development and delivery.

Ian Armstrong, principal UX designer at Dell EMC, describes the relationship between the Design Sprint and the Lean UX approach like this, “Lean UX follows a build > test > iterate loop. The idea is to get a product in front of real people, learn from them, then improve it. The problem with lean UX is that users aren’t very forgiving and they aren’t big on second chances if we piss them off. Design Sprints are part of a dual-track agile methodology. They follow an unpack > ideate > evaluate > test > refine pattern that results in a user-validated (but rough) draft in a short span of time. It’s a non-standard sprint, executed with the express purpose of defining a robust agile backlog for design and development.”

The opportunity for Lean teams is that the design sprint will formalize the interview and qualitative data gathering a little further by providing a very specific hypothesis to test against. If you are using Lean as your primary delivery process my recommendation is to use the design sprint as a way to reduce initial risk on new initiatives or as a way to get answers to big questions.

Ultimately talking to customers is a priority in any investigation of what works and what doesn’t. Agile, Lean and design sprints all put an emphasis on testing assumptions with real users. If you’re already doing this as part of your design and development work, then you’ll find it very easy to get support from your team for the testing that’s part of a design sprint.

Design Thinking

In essence, Design Thinking is the umbrella under which the methodologies of Lean UX and design sprints reside. Therefore, fitting a design sprint into a culture of Design Thinking is generally easy as there will be a deep understanding of the principles that guide the process. In spite of that understanding, there might still be resistance to the specific exercises or rigid five-day schedule of a design sprint. In these cases, I recommend showing how the flow of the design sprint matches the double-diamond flow of the traditional Design Thinking methodologies.

Common Questions and Answers for Leaders

Here are some common questions or push-backs senior managers have when asked to give up time for a design sprint:

Q: What is a design sprint and why do I need to be part of it?

A: The design sprint is a customer-focused method used to unpack problems, get answers, and validate potential solutions. It’s become a popular way to efficiently and collaboratively jumpstart a project or initiative. Your involvement will increase the chance of us discovering answers to some of the tough questions we’re dealing with. Without your involvement, our progress won’t be as significant or we may miss something important.

Q: That’s nice but I’m not a “designer.” Is this workshop still right for me?

A: Design sprints aren’t just for designers. They’re actually most successful when cross-functional teams work together to uncover and test a problem or set of problems. The focus is on understanding problems and developing solutions, not on design. Design sprints are frequently applied to challenges within all facets of business including product design, marketing and operations.

Q: My team is already represented at this workshop. Why do I need to be there too?

A: If your representative has the authority to make decisions on your behalf, then you won’t need to be there. However, if you’re concerned they might lack important insights or perspectives that will impact the outcomes, I’d recommend you personally participate.

Q: What can I expect to get out of this?

A: We will actively solve problems that are holding your team back. Common outcomes include getting answers to tough questions, validating solutions, removing obstacles in understanding, and increasing team motivation and momentum.

Q: I can’t be there for the full 5 days.

A: Ideally, we’d like you there for each day, but we can make some adjustments. If we can’t have you for all five days please join us for the first two phases and the final phase. This is when we’ll agree on the problem area that needs the most attention, and when we’ll test the solutions with actual customers. On the days in between, we’ll make decisions on the solutions and how to test. If you want to be part of that, you could call in for certain exercises.

Q: Do I need to prepare for this?

A: No prep work is required for participants except to consider that this is a proven approach to answering tough questions. All you need to do on the days of the design sprint is show up ready to collaborate, participate and have fun. If there’s any research we feel you should read before the start, we’ll send you a summary to review.

Ultimately talking to customers is a priority in any investigation of what works and what doesn’t. Agile, Lean and design sprints all put an emphasis on testing assumptions with real users. If you’re already doing this as part of your design and development work, then you’ll find it very easy to get support from your team for the testing that’s part of a design sprint.

 

04

Planning Your Design Sprint

A TEAM SPORT


by Richard Banfield

Starting Before You Start

In the first two chapters, we emphasized the need to prepare appropriately to ensure success. This preparation sometimes referred to as “phase zero,” can be easily overlooked in the rush to get started. I strongly suggest giving phase zero the attention it deserves beginning several weeks before a design sprint. Even more time will be necessary for projects that involve senior team members and/or hard-to-tie-down customers.

Getting prepared involves inviting the right people, finding a good place to work uninterrupted, having the right supplies and, most importantly, setting up customer interviews. These are all related but independent tasks, so it might be necessary to delegate to your team. We’ll detail each of these tasks, and more, in this chapter.

Marta Rey Babarro, Kai Haley, and Jenny Gove from Google discuss some of the planning and preparation that go into running a good Sprint, including Sprint Briefs and Lightning Talks.

Setting a Goal

One of the first things to establish in phase zero is the purpose of the design sprint. The previous chapter outlined what sprints are and aren’t good for, so I won’t go back over that but know that phase zero is the time to make those determinations. Founder & President of Voltage Control, Douglas Ferguson suggests having the end in mind as you plan your sprint, “While I don’t advocate that teams lock their goal in stone prior to the sprint, it is helpful to explore the goal and have a thoughtful perspective on where you’re generally pointed.” A goal also aligns the group and helps them see the meaning in their participation.

Naming your design sprint

One of the frustrations design sprint organizers experience is convincing their colleagues to participate in something with the name “design sprint.” To the uninitiated, it sounds like something only designers should be attending.

If you encounter this bias, consider renaming the session something that will resonate positively with participants. Innovation Bootcamp, Spark Sessions, Discovery Sprint and Deep Dives are just some of the names you could use. Neeta Goplani, who I introduced in chapter 2, says renaming design sprints to Spark Sessions immediately changed the attitude of her senior managers at Manulife / John Hancock and gave her the buy-in she needed.

Goplani isn’t the only one who’s used this tactic. “As a veteran ed tech development director and product manager, I have worked through the development process using many different approaches and techniques, some worked well and others did not,” says Christine Sandvik, product manager at Imagine Learning in Provo, Utah. “While working as a consultant, I started using design sprints, which I called ‘concept sprints,’ to help clients understand why they needed to build a product or feature. The word ‘concept’ better described where I needed to concentrate most of our time—at the very beginning.”

Establishing if you’re sprint-ready

In enterprises with siloed functions, it’s important to confirm that the group knows why they are about to embark on the design-sprint journey. Even if you have an enthusiastic group of people, a facilitator, and you believe you have a good problem to solve, you might still not have the ingredients for a successful session.

Jay Melone poses two questions to help ensure you’re “sprint-ready”:

  1. Does everyone involved in, and impacted by this problem, understand why this is a problem that needs attention?
  2. Is this a problem worth solving?

Melone cautions, “If the answer to either of these is no, you cannot begin a design sprint. Well, you can, but don’t expect it to go well.” It’s better to postpone than attempt to muddle through. The most common misunderstanding is that understanding the problem translates to having a goal to achieve. Goals are not problems.

If you’re in any doubt, Melone suggests conducting a framing session before deciding to do a design sprint. The purpose of the framing session is to avoid “asking 7-10 people to spend five days (not including travel) running a full design sprint”. The framing session normally only requires a few hours and aims to separate the organization’s goals from the real pain points experienced by the customer. For example, “Launch new single sign-on feature” is an organizational goal, but without evidence that the customer needs this feature, it’s unclear if it’s a problem worth solving. Participants of a framing session each make a list of all their goals (individual and organizational), they then work as a group to discuss which of these goals are motivated by customer problems or by internal desires. Eliminate duplicates, merge similar challenges or create themes. Finally, discuss and prioritize the issue that will have the most impact, based on the resources (time, people, budget) at your disposal.

If you’re struggling to include the right people, even at this early stage, or if you can’t decide if this is a problem worth solving, take a step back. Rushing into a design sprint can backfire if you don’t have support, so rather take it a bit slower. In my experience, getting buy-in in larger organizations is the hard part, but it has to be done.

But Do You FEEL Ready?

Knowing when you’re ready is closely linked to preparation.

Preparing needs to be a balance between understanding what’s ahead and not getting stuck doing too much up front. For a facilitator an investment in how to run a successful design sprint (like reading this book) is necessary, but how much preparation will depend on the experience and cultural support of design thinking practices. Even for design veterans this sense of readiness can feel like more art than science.

“We chose the design sprint because we needed to do discovery for a brand new feature, but didn’t have time to do proper directed discovery as usually done here,” says Tanya Golubeva, Product Manager at Pluralsight, an online learning platform that recently completed a successful IPO. “The goal was to understand the feature we wanted to build, design it, and test it with a few internal customers. My UX designer organized how the days would be run. We both read the [design sprint] book, but I wish we would’ve had the entire team read the book first. Also, there were a couple of days when we were doing an exercise (like crazy eights), where preparation ahead of that day would’ve been extremely useful.”

In spite of this Golubeva felt the sprint was a success. “The team was initially really worried about spending an entire week not working on quarter’s priorities but by the end everyone was very supportive of us doing this work,” she says.

If you’re still uncertain if a design sprint is right for your team, consider doing a discovery needs assessment (DNA). This is an informal session of questions that can illuminate any major concerns and identify knowledge gaps. You can find all the DNA questions in the Appendix.

My advice is to approach the first design sprint as a learning exercise. Allow yourself permission to stumble a little and learn through experience. This mindset will allow you to get your feet wet while remaining mindful that obstacles will need to be overcome through experience.

Who Needs To Be at Your Design Sprint?

Have you heard the business fable about the chicken and the pig? It goes like this: When producing a dish made of ham and eggs, the pig provided the ham, which required a significant sacrifice. The chicken provided the eggs, which was an easy contribution. Both were needed, but only the pig was deeply committed.

When it comes to including people for the full five phases of your design sprint, try to choose only the pigs. But there are other considerations at play, too.

Group Size

Four to eight participants is an ideal size for momentum and efficiency. For larger groups, you’ll need to invest more time in preparation and logistics, and an experienced facilitator will be critical to keeping the cats herded.

Douglas Ferguson suggests pre-filtering exercise content with larger groups. “While it is possible to facilitate a larger group, it is important to consider the amount of content they will generate.” Ferguson suggests consolidating the teams inputs by splitting them into smaller groups during the sprint and asking them to narrow down their exercise answers before they share them with the entire group. “When working with larger groups, I recommend having them pre-filter their content. Instead of sharing all their sprint questions, they will just pick two or three. Instead of posting all their ‘How Might We’s’ on the wall, have them pick their top five, four, or three. Depending on the number of participants, you can decide how much content is best.”

Insight Owners

The guiding principle here is to have the right people in the room to find the answers you seek. It’s more important than having every department represented. With that said, you’ll want the following domains represented regardless of the group size:

  • Product ownership
  • Design
  • Development and/or engineering
  • Marketing
  • Senior leadership that represents the company level goals

Diversity

You want a diverse group of people in the room. A diversity of backgrounds, functional knowledge and experiences helps avoid biases that come from groups that have common domain, demographic and cultural backgrounds. Diversity is also proven to be good for business, so I recommend building teams that reflect the widest possible diversity across your organization or pool of stakeholders.

At Northwestern Mutual, Scott Yim and his team work hard at getting participation from people outside of the design team in sprints.

Northwestern Mutual’s Scott Yim remains attracted to the design sprint because the process supports collaborative culture. “I just found it results in a better end-product for the user.” says Yim, “The diversity of opinion, experience, and thought around the table, where everyone is bought in and feels that sense of ownership. That’s something we can cultivate and make fabric of our culture. It just results in a better product at the end of the day.”

You Still Need the Chickens

You want to include the pigs whose jobs depend on the outcome of your design sprint. But you still need the contributions of some chickens, too. Trying to include everyone in a design sprint is difficult, but fortunately, there’s another option.

Ferguson suggests conducting “daily office hours” as a way to involve more members of your company without making the core sprint team too large. “Simply invite [the contributors] to attend daily office hours after the sprint team is done for the day. Walk them through all of the assets and activities of the day. Answer any questions they may have. This typically takes only 30 minutes and will allow you to include more people in your process. They will feel more included and understand the process and typically go on to be advocates for the solution.”

Facilitator Jay Melone also sees the value of preparing many but inviting a few. “Sometimes I’ve got a much smaller group in the framing and most of those people join the sprint. In other cases, a company might have a lot more people in the framing and only a subset of those people come to the design sprint.” Melone, who teaches design sprints to companies like Nike, Verizon, Audible, and Boeing, understands that not everyone will be available for the five-day sprint, but there’s no reason you can’t educate all the influencers and contributors. “Doing a problem-framing session beforehand is a good introduction to the mindset and the thinking.”

When you’ve got teams that aren’t familiar with design sprints, that could mean they’re not fluent with the broader UX and product-design world. So a design sprint is a good opportunity to bring a large group of people up to speed while making sure your smaller group of participants is prepared to work with the right attitudes and fluency.

 

Setting Expectations and Roles

Design sprints require a lot of work and focused attention from participants. In order to complete a successful sprint, it’s important to manage expectations in advance. This includes making sure everyone knows the goal of the sprint and what he or she needs to do to be valuable to the process. Here are some other important things participants should know:

  • A design sprint can’t solve every problem.
  • The process likely will uncover additional problems that need attention.
  • You probably won’t learn everything you set out to learn.
  • Solutions and hypotheses may be partially or completely invalidated.
  • Some things you test won’t work.
  • Shared understanding is the desired outcome, not a prototype.

Reading through this list you may worry that no one will want to participate. I find it’s helpful to discuss what will happen after the design sprint. Explain that If the original problem is solved, you might move on to refining your prototype and start planning how to integrate it into your product cycle. Discuss the possibility that if none of the solutions you build and test work, you’ve discovered what won’t be a good solution. This is a good thing. You just saved time and money.

When you don’t find a working solution, it might be necessary to go back to phase one and focus on understanding the problem. Did you solve for a problem that was meaningful for your company? Was the problem worth solving for your customers? You’ll have a ton of knowledge from the design sprint that will make a follow-on effort more efficient. If you ended up with more questions than answers, you’re doing a good job. This normally means you’re getting closer to a viable solution. But it’s important for participants to know this.

However your design sprint turns out, you’ll want to set expectations and do some light planning for what comes next. Participants get pretty invested in their ideas and want to know what the next relay of the course looks like after the sprint is over. (We’ll come back to this in Chapter 6.)

The Roles of a Sprint Team

Part of the magic of a design sprint is the separation of work between team members. Unlike traditional brainstorming sessions where all the members simultaneously generate ideas, the design sprint recognizes that a specialization of efforts creates a better result. By giving members roles that create, instigate, organize or collect, the design sprint provides focus where it’s most valuable, and flexibility when it’s required.

The Facilitator: This person will lead the design sprint. Their responsibilities are to ensure the right people are there, the background research has been gathered and the test subjects (customers and stakeholders) are available for interviews. They also are responsible for keeping the team focused on the tasks.

If you’re considering this role, but you don’t feel comfortable directing other people, you might need to hire a professional design-sprint facilitator. You’ll learn a lot just by watching a pro at work. Also, don’t try to facilitate and be an active participant. Facilitation is a full-time job and trying to do more will reduce the value of your participation and of the entire design sprint. Focus on doing one thing well.

Product Owner: This is the person at the company with the initial product vision or the person with ultimate responsibility for the product or project. New product ideas tend to be overseen by the person who is leading the innovation effort. Existing products will generally have a product manager or product lead who currently has responsibility for the product or service. Their title is less important than their final decision-making power over the project. If they can shut down your design sprint, then you’ll want them in the room.

Note Taker: This person’s job is to document the work. That means collecting all the notes, sketches, Post-its, and taking photos of anything that goes up on the whiteboard. Make sure the note taker has a system for ordering and labeling everything. There’s nothing more frustrating than looking for an important insight only to discover it wasn’t labeled or captured correctly. I highly recommend putting all these documented notes into a shared folder and creating a simple PDF of each of the phases. There’s no right or wrong way to capture notes, but clarity and access is important.

Team members: The rest of the team will be made up of the people you need to get the work done. As discussed previously, who gets invited will depend on what insights you will need (inputs) and who can help you get the answers you need (outputs).

Pre-Sprint Research

Pre-sprint research is critical not just for setting expectations, but also to enable the overall success of a design sprint. To make the most of the five days of the sprint, you’ll want to have a general idea of the customer’s real pain points. In a recent design sprint with the multinational software services group, CA Technologies, the facilitator Jill Starett showed a few short video clips of someone unsuccessfully trying to use their product for the first time. Jill says the video created tremendous empathy between the design sprint participants and the user, and this empathy was the necessary foundation for a true understanding of the pain point.

Customer interviews are another tremendously valuable tool. I recommend conducting between six and twelve interviews with current or prospective users before the design sprint to try to get clear on the problem you aim to solve. These interviews can be arranged and conducted by the facilitator or delegated to other team members. My preference is to have as many participants as possible engaged with customers or prospects before the design sprint starts to increase their sense of belonging and purpose in the sprint.

Along with interviews you’ll want to collect and review any qualitative and quantitative data that will provide valuable insights to the sprint. This could be surveys and studies, or data analysis from current product usage. I’ve found that spending the time to draft user journeys and experience maps before the design sprint also provides a solid foundation for conversations on day one. These user journeys and experience maps needn’t be comprehensive, as you’ll explore them in detail as part of the Understand phase.

Less Is More

It’s the organizer’s responsibility to ensure all participants are informed. However, too much research can easily overwhelm a design-sprint team. If you create a research brief to distribute before a sprint begins, keep it to no more than two pages (one piece of paper front and back) with relevant data points for research review.

When it comes to pre-sprint research, quality is more important than quantity. For example, when we embarked on a design sprint for Netapp, a Fortune 500 cloud-storage enterprise, we discovered the persona research they were referencing was four years old. The research predated several of their products and clearly needed updating. This made us aware that research hadn’t been a priority for a while and that we’d need to dig a little deeper to get the useful information we wanted. A bit of secondary research can also be helpful to set the stage for participants without overloading them with too much primary data.

Preparatory background research also includes some basic competitive analysis. Are there already solutions out there? Who has already succeeded or failed with this problem? My favorite research trick is to call competitors pretending to be a potential customer to hear how they pitch and price their solutions. How a company positions their value is a window into how well they understand their customers.

Nuts, Bolts, and Logistics

Image searches for the word “collaborate” invariably return stock photos of fashionably dressed hipsters standing at a Post-it note-covered whiteboard. The hipsters usually look fake, but the Post-it notes and whiteboard are totally legit. They’re part of the nuts and bolts that allow ideas to get out of our heads and into the collaboration space.

Working closely with a group of people you may have just met can be a big cognitive strain. Having the right environment, tools and mood can mean the difference between healthy collaboration and frustrating interaction. The little things go a long way towards making a group feel comfortable. “I had one participant who asked for salsa music on day two,” remembers Jill Starett. “She danced in place while she sketched.”

Everybody Loves an Agenda

It doesn’t have to be detailed to the minute, but participants like to have an agenda that gives them some sense of what they’ll be up to each day.

I prefer to start early when people are fresh and caffeinated, and then knock off a little early. Ending early gives me time as the facilitator to answer the individual’s questions and prepare for the next day. Whether you start earlier or later, try to keep each day to no more than six hours of actual work. Focused, creative work can be exhausting, so it needs to be paced. Depending on the group size you may want to add a few breaks for coffee and lunch. This gives participants time to catch up on emails, make calls or check in with their teams.

I’ve noticed cultural preferences play a big part in how the day is scheduled. In the U.S. it’s acceptable to have a working lunch where participants grab a sandwich and continue to push through the exercises. In Europe, a longer break for lunch is expected. I personally prefer a longer break, as it allows participants to disconnect for a while and recharge. The key is to balance focused participation with time to rest, reflect a bit, and communicate with the outside world.

As the facilitator or organizer, it’s your job to make participants feel comfortable about the work ahead. Before the sprint, send emails to the team with subject lines like: What to expect next week, or Stay tuned: We’ll be sharing an agenda template soon. Once underway, communicate the plans for each day upfront and at various intervals throughout the day. Add reminders of the schedule to the facilitator’s slide deck and hand out copies of the agenda to everyone on arrival for Phase 1. This will allow participants to plan phone calls, email or check-ins, and to handle any family obligations with less stress. Check the Appendix for templates to use in these helpful communications.

Supplies you’ll need to be effective

The tasks of sketching, creating shared-lists, crafting prototypes, and note-taking will require supplies. Below is a recommended list:

  • Post-it notes (a selection of colors and sizes is helpful)
  • Sharpies
  • Blank sheets of printer paper or heavy-stock printer paper to prevent Sharpie leakage
  • Whiteboard and whiteboard markers (the more colors the better)
  • Circle vote stickers (also called dot stickers)
  • Easel pads or large pads of paper
  • Craft paper or card (for prototypes)
  • Adhesive tape
  • Smartphone (for taking photos) or camera if you prefer

For groups considering larger interactive prototypes, add cardboard boxes and packing tape. Of course, you’re not limited to these suggestions. Feel free to use whatever you find in your workspace. I’ve seen some pretty cool airport security gate mockups made from old moving boxes, tablecloths and conference room chairs.

We’ve made it easy for you and created an Amazon shopping list for the supplies you’ll need. Feel free to customize your choices.

Recruiting customers for interviews

The sooner you start the process of finding customers to interview, the more successful the day-five interviews will be. For B2B enterprise customers, recruiting can take several days, so don’t wait until the last minute. If you already have access to customers then contacting them and communicating your requests for interviews will be as easy as sending out emails or making phone calls.

If you’re testing a new product, you’ll need to recruit prospective customers and this can be a little more complicated. There are several ways to do this. I recommend reading the guidelines provided by Steve Krug and by GV’s research team.

Setting Up, Getting Comfortable and Feeling Safe

I like to say that a design sprint is really just a good excuse to get people talking and bonding in a safe environment. Everything you do leading up to, and during the sessions, will have an influence on how participants think and behave. The room, the preparation, the tone of communications and even the dress code sends strong signals about what is expected of the team.

As Daniel Coyle writes in his book The Culture Code, “Seen through this lens, culture is not about soft stuff, it’s about signaling. In other words, culture is not a set of traits, it’s a signaling contest. Improve your signals, improve your culture.” I encourage organizers of sprints to create strong signals of creativity and psychological safety. Tell your team early and often that this is a safe place to be creative without judgment.

C. Todd Lombardo, Chief Product Officer of Vempathy, makes non-judgment a core part of design sprints by creating “Rules of our Design Sprint” at the start of day one. On a large sheet of paper he writes the rules that will keep people feeling open to sharing while scrutinizing the facts. His #1 rule is inevitably: “Be hard on ideas, and soft on people.”

The Room

Physical space influences how we behave and interact. A big room with plenty of whiteboards and natural light is the ideal physical space for a design sprint. Cramped, windowless environments will stifle creativity and can send the message that the design sprint is low-priority. The room also needs a place to pin or tape up sketches. If possible, try to secure a location off-site and away from daily distractions.

Don’t overlook the environmental impact of too much formality. Invite the team to wear casual clothes for the design sprint and ask them to bring their favorite snacks. “How many times have I heard participants say they should have worn different shoes, because man, the design sprint keeps you on your feet,” says Starett about the time spent at the whiteboard sketching and debating.

For design sprints that fall on a holiday, ask participants to take it a step further. “Our design sprint kicked off on Halloween,” says eClinicalWorks project lead Raj Indupri. “Half of the participants were in costume. Including one who dressed up like a witch.”

Take pictures of the team working together and share them with the group at the end of each day. Let participants take their work home with them once it has been captured. I’ve seen prototypes carefully packed away or carried out of a design sprint by their proud creators. Bonding is inevitable when people work closely together and participants often ask for something to remember those collaborative moments.

“At the end of a design sprint the participants absolutely couldn’t leave without having us all take a group picture as a way to say, ‘Yes, we did it!,’” says Tim Lupo, senior product manager at Fresh Tilled Soil. “That picture felt like the moment when you leave summer camp after having made tons of new friends who challenged you to do things you wouldn’t normally do outside of camp.”

You also can get participants in the groove by incorporating music into your exercises. Music keeps the energy up, gets the creative juices flowing, and is a good mechanism for crowd control. I use music at the start of the day to set the mood, during heads-down design sessions and to combat the inevitable post-lunch drowsiness. It’s certainly not necessary to have music playing all the time. Here are a few of my favorite Spotify playlists: electronic beats, soundtracks, and salsa.

Remote Design Sprints

Increasingly, design sprints are run with teams in several locations, but I highly recommend in-person sessions whenever possible. In fact, it’s often better to postpone a design sprint until you can find a convenient time for everyone to be together. However, if you can’t avoid it, there are some creative options for remote sprints.

Remote sprints don’t mean you have to do every day remotely. You can create a combination of on-site and off-site days that suit the team’s schedules and location. If it’s possible to do at least the first two days on-site, do that. It’s generally better to do the early phase in person to maximize the opportunity for chemistry and sharing ideas.

If you have to run a design sprint remotely, it’s best that all participants be remote. Having half the team in one location and the rest working remotely can create an us-versus-them mindset. You can level the playing field and keep everyone engaged by making the entire team remote.

If you go for a remote sprint, invest in a good multi-person conference system that can support several people continuously. You want to be certain everyone can talk, share, draw, and prototype in ways that keep them engaged. Screen-sharing and high-quality audio features are essential. Research suggests audio quality is often considered more important than video quality. Nevertheless, a good webcam is always appreciated.

The activities of a design sprint form a natural rhythm of (1) set clarity for activity goal and steps, (2) ideate individually, (3) share and diverge at a group, (4) converge as a group. Remote sprints can take advantage of this rhythm by allowing people to disconnect for stage 2 in the cycle. They may not need to do this for every activity, like crazy eights, but for some of the longer activities, like storyboarding, it‘s a necessary and useful reprieve to disconnect. Even if participants just mute and turn off cameras, it helps relieve the fatigue associated with a day-long conference call.

Capture everything from a remote sprint in whatever form makes the most sense for your team. For example, you can take photos of whiteboard sessions and sketches, use Google docs for notes, and video for interviews. My team has used a combination of Zoom (video conferencing), dedicated landlines (audio), Slack (messaging), and Google slides and docs (notes and visual asset capture) to run remote design sprints. We also use Rev.com for audio transcriptions when necessary.

 

About the Authors

Richard Banfield
CEO, Fresh Tilled Soil
Enterprise Design Sprints
Enterprise Design Sprints